Hash signature-based matching phase of search, as a replacement for inverted index (document posting lists), with plenty of interesting optimizations.
Link to PDF from SIGIR 2017:
Video presentation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-Xoy5w5ydM
// Bonus: it uses bloom filters ;)
Note: the topic in general is kinda advanced, but this particular video should be understandable for beginner programmers. Not recommended for general crowd, though.